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The Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate validates a demonstrated understanding of the following:

  • FOSS, the various communities, and licenses.
  • Knowledge of open source applications in the workplace as they relate to closed source equivalents.
  • Basic concepts of hardware, processes, programs and the components of the Linux Operating System.
  • How to work on the command line and with files.
  • How to create and restore compressed backups and archives.
  • System security, users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories.
  • How to create and run simple scripts.
English

LPI Linux Essentials

Show employers that you have the foundational skills required for your next job or promotion.

Linux adoption continues to rise world-wide as individual users, government entities and industries ranging from automotive to space exploration embrace open source technologies. This expansion of open source in enterprise is redefining traditional Information and Communication Technology (ICT) job roles to require more Linux skills. Whether you’re starting your career in open source, or looking for advancement, independently verifying your skill set can help you stand out to hiring managers or your management team.

The Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC) also serves as an ideal stepping-stone to the more advanced LPIC Professional Certification track for Linux Systems Administrators.

Current Version: 1.5 (Exam code 010-150)

Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification

Requirements: Passing the Linux Essentials 010 exam

Validity Period: Lifetime

Languages: English, German. The exam may be written in the following languages only at paper-based exam events: Portuguese (Brazilian), Italian, Spanish (Modern), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional)

To receive the Linux Essentials Certificate the candidate must:

  • have an understanding of the Linux and open source industry and knowledge of the most popular open source Applications;
  • understand the major components of the Linux operating system, and have the technical proficiency to work on the Linux command line; and
  • have a basic understanding of security and administration related topics such as user/group management, working on the command line, and permissions.

Linux skills enhance many ICT job roles

Developers

Front End Web

Back End Web

Java

Python

PHP

Mobile

SQL

Embedded Systems

Administrators

Cloud

Database

Dev Ops

IT/ Technical Support

Mobile Application Support

NOC Operator

Big Data

Virtualization

LAMP

Engineers

QA/QC

Cloud Architect

Microsoft Systems

Networking

Data Analyst

Security

The Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate validates a demonstrated understanding of the following:

  • FOSS, the various communities, and licenses.
  • Knowledge of open source applications in the workplace as they relate to closed source equivalents.
  • Basic concepts of hardware, processes, programs and the components of the Linux Operating System.
  • How to work on the command line and with files.
  • How to create and restore compressed backups and archives.
  • System security, users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories.
  • How to create and run simple scripts.
  1. View detailed exam objectives  
  2. View exam study resources  
  3. Purchase exam voucher  

92% of employers said IT certified individuals receive higher starting salaries than those without.

-CompTIA HR Perceptions of IT Training and Certification Study

44% of hiring managers are increasing salaries for open source talent over other departments

-open source Jobs Report

87% of organizations say it’s hard to find open source talent

-open source Jobs Report

LPIC-1 Exam 102 Topics

  • Shells, Scripting and Data Management
  • Interfaces and Desktops
  • Administrative Tasks
  • Essential System Services
  • Networking Fundamentals
  • Security
  1. View detailed exam objectives  
  2. View exam study resources  
English

LPIC-1 Exam 101 Topics

  • System Architecture
  • Linux Installation and Package Management
  • GNU and Unix Commands
  • Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
  1. View detailed exam objectives  
  2. View exam study resources  
English

To become LPIC-1 certified, you must pass both the 101 and 102 exams

At LPI we take the guesswork out of what’s on the exam. Our exam objectives show you what topics you can expect to find on the exams as well as the relative importance of those topics. No matter which study resources you choose to prepare for your LPI exams, reviewing the individual exam objectives should be at the core of any study plan.

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LPIC-1: System Administrator

The world’s largest and most recognized Linux Certification

LPIC-1 is the first certification in LPI’s multi-level Linux professional certification program. The LPIC-1 will validate the candidate's ability to perform maintenance tasks on the command line, install and configure a computer running Linux and configure basic networking.

The LPIC-1 is designed to reflect current research and validate a candidate's proficiency in real world system administration. The objectives are tied to real-world job skills, which we determine through job task analysis surveying during exam development.

Current Version: 4.0 (Exam codes 101-400 and 102-400)

Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites for this certification

Requirements: Passing exams 101 and 102

Validity Period: 5 years

Languages: English, German, Italian, Portuguese (Brazilian), Spanish (Modern), Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional) and Japanese

To become LPIC-1 certified the candidate must be able to:

  • understand the architecture of a Linux system;
  • install and maintain a Linux workstation, including X11 and setup it up as a network client;
  • work at the Linux command line, including common GNU and Unix commands;
  • handle files and access permissions as well as system security; and
  • perform easy maintenance tasks: help users, add users to a larger system, backup and restore, shutdown and reboot.

 

Note: The SUSE certification framework is changing. The LPIC-1 for SUSE CLA offer will only be available until Aug 30, 2016. After Aug 30, SUSE will recognize LPIC-1 directly as a prerequisite for their advanced certifications. For additional details, visit: https://training.suse.com/certification

LPI is committed to providing the IT community with exams of the highest quality relevance and accuracy.

Learn more  

20% increase in bonus pay for LPIC-1 Certified Linux AdministratorsThe Foote Partners report IT Skills and Certification Index, 2014

33% increase in bonus pay for LPIC-2 Certified Linux Engineers in only 3-monthsThe Foote Partners report IT Skills and Certification Index, 2014

25% growth in bonus pay for LPIC-3 Linux Enterprise Professionals in one yearThe Foote Partners report IT Skills and Certification Index, 2014

To become LPIC-1 certified, you must pass both the 101 and 102 exams

At LPI we take the guesswork out of what’s on the exam. Our exam objectives show you what topics you can expect to find on the exams as well as the relative importance of those topics. No matter which study resources you choose to prepare for your LPI exams, reviewing the individual exam objectives should be at the core of any study plan.

LPIC-1 Exam 101 Topics

  • System Architecture
  • Linux Installation and Package Management
  • GNU and Unix Commands
  • Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
  1. View detailed exam objectives  
  2. View exam study resources  
  3. Purchase exam voucher  

LPIC-1 Exam 102 Topics

  • Shells, Scripting and Data Management
  • Interfaces and Desktops
  • Administrative Tasks
  • Essential System Services
  • Networking Fundamentals
  • Security
  1. View detailed exam objectives  
  2. View exam study resources  
  3. Purchase exam voucher  

Exam 300 Objectives

LPIC-3 Exam 300: Mixed Environments

 

Exam Objectives Version: Version 1.0

Exam Code: 300-100

About Objective Weights: Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights indicate the relative importance of each objective on the exam. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

 

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Exam Topics

Topic 390: OpenLDAP Configuration

390.1 OpenLDAP Replication

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the server replication available with OpenLDAP.
Weight: 3

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Replication concepts
  • Configure OpenLDAP replication
  • Analyze replication log files
  • Understand replica hubs
  • LDAP referrals
  • LDAP sync replication

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • master / slave server
  • multi-master replication
  • consumer
  • replica hub
  • one-shot mode
  • referral
  • syncrepl
  • pull-based / push-based synchronization
  • refreshOnly and refreshAndPersist
  • replog

 

390.2 Securing the Directory

Description: Candidates should be able to configure encrypted access to the LDAP directory, and restrict access at the firewall level.
Weight: 3

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Securing the directory with SSL and TLS
  • Firewall considerations
  • Unauthenticated access methods
  • User / password authentication methods
  • Maintanence of SASL user DB
  • Client / server certificates

Terms and Utilities:

  • SSL / TLS
  • Security Strength Factors (SSF)
  • SASL
  • proxy authorization
  • StartTLS
  • iptables

 

390.3 OpenLDAP Server Performance Tuning

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be capable of measuring the performance of an LDAP server, and tuning configuration directives.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Measure OpenLDAP performance
  • Tune software configuration to increase performance
  • Understand indexes

Terms and Utilities:

  • index
  • DB_CONFIG

Topic 391: OpenLDAP as an Authentication Backend

391.1 LDAP Integration with PAM and NSS

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure PAM and NSS to retrieve information from an LDAP directory.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure PAM to use LDAP for authentication
  • Configure NSS to retrieve information from LDAP
  • Configure PAM modules in various Unix environments

Terms and Utilities:

  • PAM
  • NSS
  • /etc/pam.d/
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf

 

391.2 Integrating LDAP with Active Directory and Kerberos

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate LDAP with Active Directory Services.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Kerberos integration with LDAP
  • Cross platform authentication
  • Single sign-on concepts
  • Integration and compatibility limitations between OpenLDAP and Active Directory

Terms and Utilities:

  • Kerberos
  • Active Directory
  • single sign-on
  • DNS

Topic 392: Samba Basics

392.1 Samba Concepts and Architecture

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the essential concepts of Samba. As well, the major differences between Samba3 and Samba4 should be known.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the roles of the Samba daemons and components
  • Understand key issues regarding heterogeneous networks
  • Identify key TCP/UDP ports used with SMB/CIFS
  • Knowledge of Samba3 and Samba4 differences

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/services
  • Samba daemons: smbd, nmbd, samba, winbindd

 

392.2 Configure Samba

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the Samba daemons for a wide variety of purposes.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of Samba server configuration file structure
  • Knowledge of Samba variables and configuration parameters
  • Troubleshoot and debug configuration problems with Samba

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • smb.conf parameters
  • smb.conf variables
  • testparm
  • secrets.tdb

 

392.3 Regular Samba Maintenance

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should know about the various tools and utilities that are part of a Samba installation.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Monitor and interact with running Samba daemons
  • Perform regular backups of Samba configuration and state data

Terms and Utilities:

  • smbcontrol
  • smbstatus
  • tdbbackup

 

392.4 Troubleshooting Samba

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should understand the structure of trivial database files and know how troubleshoot problems.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure Samba logging
  • Backup TDB files
  • Restore TDB files
  • Identify TDB file corruption
  • Edit / list TDB file content

Terms and Utilities:

  • /var/log/samba/
  • log level
  • debuglevel
  • smbpasswd
  • pdbedit
  • secrets.tdb
  • tdbbackup
  • tdbdump
  • tdbrestore
  • tdbtool

 

392.5 Internationalization

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to work with internationalization character codes and code pages.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand internationalization character codes and code pages
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to share, file and directory names in a non-English environment
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to user and group naming in a non-English environment
  • Understand the difference in the name space between Windows and Linux/Unix with respect to computer naming in a non-English environment

Terms and Utilities:

  • internationalization
  • character codes
  • code pages
  • smb.conf
  • dos charset, display charset and unix charset

Topic 393: Samba Share Configuration

393.1 File Services

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to create and configure file shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create and configure file sharing
  • Plan file service migration
  • Limit access to IPC$
  • Create scripts for user and group handling of file shares
  • Samba share access configuration parameters

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • [homes]
  • smbcquotas
  • smbsh
  • browseable, writeable, valid users, write list, read list, read only and guest ok
  • IPC$
  • mount, smbmount

 

393.2 Linux File System and Share/Service Permissions

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should understand file permissions on a Linux file system in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of file / directory permission control
  • Understand how Samba interacts with Linux file system permissions and ACLs
  • Use Samba VFS to store Windows ACLs

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • chmod, chown
  • create mask, directory mask, force create mode, force directory mode
  • smbcacls
  • getfacl, setfacl
  • vfs_acl_xattr, vfs_acl_tdb and vfs objects

 

393.3 Print Services

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage print shares in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create and configure printer sharing
  • Configure integration between Samba and CUPS
  • Manage Windows print drivers and configure downloading of print drivers
  • Configure [print$]
  • Understand security concerns with printer sharing
  • Uploading printer drivers for Point’n’Print driver installation using ‘Add Print Driver Wizard’ in Windows

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • [print$]
  • CUPS
  • cupsd.conf
  • /var/spool/samba/.
  • smbspool
  • rpcclient
  • net

Topic 394: Samba User and Group Management

394.1 Managing User Accounts and Groups

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage user and group accounts in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manager user and group accounts
  • Understand user and group mapping
  • Knowledge of user account management tools
  • Use of the smbpasswd program
  • Force ownership of file and directory objects

Terms and Utilities:

  • pdbedit
  • smb.conf
  • samba-tool user (with subcommands)
  • samba-tool group (with subcommands)
  • smbpasswd
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/group
  • force user, force group.
  • idmap

 

394.2 Authentication, Authorization and Winbind

Weight: 5

Description: Candidates should understand the various authentication mechanisms and configure access control. Candidates should be able to install and configure the Winbind service.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Setup a local password database
  • Perform password synchronization
  • Knowledge of different passdb backends
  • Convert between Samba passdb backends
  • Integrate Samba with LDAP
  • Configure Winbind service
  • Configure PAM and NSS

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • smbpasswd, tdbsam, ldapsam
  • passdb backend
  • libnss_winbind
  • libpam_winbind
  • libpam_smbpass
  • wbinfo
  • getent
  • SID and foreign SID
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/group

Topic 395: Samba Domain Integration

395.1 Samba as a PDC and BDC

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to setup and maintain primary and backup domain controllers. Candidates should be able to manage Windows/Linux client access to the NT-Style domains.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and configure domain membership and trust relationships
  • Create and maintain a primary domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4
  • Create and maintain a backup domain controller with Samba3 and Samba4
  • Add computers to an existing domain
  • Configure logon scripts
  • Configure roaming profiles
  • Configure system policies

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • security mode
  • server role
  • domain logons
  • domain master
  • logon script
  • logon path
  • NTConfig.pol
  • net
  • profiles
  • add machine script
  • profile acls

 

395.2 Samba4 as an AD compatible Domain Controller

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure Samba 4 as an AD Domain Controller.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure and test Samba 4 as an AD DC
  • Using smbclient to confirm AD operation
  • Understand how Samba integrates with AD services: DNS, Kerberos, NTP, LDAP

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • server role
  • samba-tool domain (with subcommands)
  • samba

 

395.3 Configure Samba as a Domain Member Server

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to integrate Linux servers into an environment where Active Directory is present.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Joining Samba to an existing NT4 domain
  • Joining Samba to an existing AD domain
  • Ability to obtain a TGT from a KDC

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • server role
  • server security
  • net command
  • kinit, TGT and REALM

Topic 396: Samba Name Services

396.1 NetBIOS and WINS

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be familiar with NetBIOS/WINS concepts and understand network browsing.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand WINS concepts
  • Understand NetBIOS concepts
  • Understand the role of a local master browser
  • Understand the role of a domain master browser
  • Understand the role of Samba as a WINS server
  • Understand name resolution
  • Configure Samba as a WINS server
  • Configure WINS replication
  • Understand NetBIOS browsing and browser elections
  • Understand NETBIOS name types

Terms and Utilities:

  • smb.conf
  • nmblookup
  • smbclient
  • name resolve order
  • lmhosts
  • wins support, wins server, wins proxy, dns proxy
  • domain master, os level, preferred master

 

396.2 Active Directory Name Resolution

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be familiar with the internal DNS server with Samba4.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand and manage DNS for Samba4 as an AD Domain Controller
  • DNS forwarding with the internal DNS server of Samba4

Terms and Utilities:

  • samba-tool dns (with subcommands)
  • smb.conf
  • dns forwarder
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • dig, host

Topic 397: Working with Linux and Windows Clients

397.1 CIFS Integration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be comfortable working with CIFS in a mixed environment.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand SMB/CIFS concepts
  • Access and mount remote CIFS shares from a Linux client
  • Securely storing CIFS credentials
  • Understand features and benefits of CIFS
  • Understand permissions and file ownership of remote CIFS shares

Terms and Utilities:

  • SMB/CIFS
  • mount, mount.cifs
  • smbclient
  • smbget
  • smbtar
  • smbtree
  • findsmb
  • smb.conf
  • smbcquotas
  • /etc/fstab

 

397.2 Working with Windows Clients

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with remote Windows clients, and configure Windows workstations to access file and print services from Linux servers.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Knowledge of Windows clients
  • Explore browse lists and SMB clients from Windows
  • Share file / print resources from Windows
  • Use of the smbclient program
  • Use of the Windows net utility

Terms and Utilities:

  • Windows net command
  • smbclient
  • control panel
  • rdesktop
  • workgroup

Exam 101 Objectives

LPIC-1 Exam 101

 

Exam Objectives Version: Version 4.0

Exam Codes: 101-400  or  LX0-103 (these exams are identical; passing either exam will count as the 101 exam toward your LPIC-1)

About Objective Weights: Each objective is assigned a weighting value. The weights indicate the relative importance of each objective on the exam. Objectives with higher weights will be covered in the exam with more questions.

 

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Exam Topics

Topic 101: System Architecture

101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to determine and configure fundamental system hardware.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.)
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices
  • Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev, dbus

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /sys/
  • /proc/
  • /dev/
  • modprobe
  • lsmod
  • lspci
  • lsusb

 

101.2 Boot the system

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS to boot completion
  • Understanding of SysVinit and systemd
  • Awareness of Upstart
  • Check boot events in the log files

Terms and Utilities:

  • dmesg
  • BIOS
  • bootloader
  • kernel
  • initramfs
  • init
  • SysVinit
  • systemd

 

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to manage the SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set the default runlevel or boot target
  • Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode
  • Shutdown and reboot from the command line
  • Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events
  • Properly terminate processes

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/inittab
  • shutdown
  • init
  • /etc/init.d/
  • telinit
  • systemd
  • systemctl
  • /etc/systemd/
  • /usr/lib/systemd/
  • wall

Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management

102.1 Design hard disk layout

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks
  • Tailor the design to the intended use of the system
  • Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting
  • Knowledge of basic features of LVM

Terms and Utilities:

  • / (root) filesystem
  • /var filesystem
  • /home filesystem
  • /boot filesystem
  • swap space
  • mount points
  • partitions

 

102.2 Install a boot manager

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options
  • Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy
  • Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2
  • Interact with the boot loader

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf
  • grub-install
  • grub-mkconfig
  • MBR

 

102.3 Manage shared libraries

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Identify shared libraries
  • Identify the typical locations of system libraries
  • Load shared libraries

Terms and Utilities:

  • ldd
  • ldconfig
  • /etc/ld.so.conf
  • LD_LIBRARY_PATH

 

102.4 Use Debian package management

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages
  • Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed
  • Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed)

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/apt/sources.list
  • dpkg
  • dpkg-reconfigure
  • apt-get

  • apt-cache

  • aptitude

 

102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM and YUM tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM and YUM
  • Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures
  • Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from

Terms and Utilities:

  • rpm
  • rpm2cpio
  • /etc/yum.conf
  • /etc/yum.repos.d/
  • yum
  • yumdownloader

Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands

103.1 Work on the command line

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line
  • Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables
  • Use and edit command history
  • Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path

Terms and Utilities:

  • bash
  • echo
  • env
  • export
  • pwd
  • set
  • unset
  • man
  • uname
  • history
  • .bash_history

 

103.2 Process text streams using filters

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should should be able to apply filters to text streams.

Key Knowledge Areas:

Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package

Terms and Utilities:

  • cat
  • cut
  • expand
  • fmt
  • head
  • join
  • less
  • nl
  • od
  • paste
  • pr
  • sed
  • sort
  • split
  • tail
  • tr
  • unexpand
  • uniq
  • wc

 

103.3 Perform basic file management

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Copy, move and remove files and directories individually
  • Copy multiple files and directories recursively
  • Remove files and directories recursively
  • Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands
  • Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time
  • Usage of tar, cpio and dd

Terms and Utilities:

  • cp
  • find
  • mkdir
  • mv
  • ls
  • rm
  • rmdir
  • touch
  • tar
  • cpio
  • dd
  • file
  • gzip
  • gunzip
  • bzip2
  • xz
  • file globbing

 

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error
  • Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command
  • Use the output of one command as arguments to another command
  • Send output to both stdout and a file

Terms and Utilities:

  • tee
  • xargs

 

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Run jobs in the foreground and background
  • Signal a program to continue running after logout
  • Monitor active processes
  • Select and sort processes for display
  • Send signals to processes

Terms and Utilities:

  • &
  • bg
  • fg
  • jobs
  • kill
  • nohup
  • ps
  • top
  • free
  • uptime
  • pgrep
  • pkill
  • killall
  • screen

 

103.6 Modify process execution priorities

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Know the default priority of a job that is created
  • Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default
  • Change the priority of a running process

Terms and Utilities:

  • nice
  • ps
  • renice
  • top

 

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements
  • Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content

Terms and Utilities:

  • grep
  • egrep
  • fgrep
  • sed
  • regex(7)

 

103.8 Perform basic file editing operations using vi

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, basic vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Navigate a document using vi
  • Use basic vi modes
  • Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text

Terms and Utilities:

  • vi
  • /, ?
  • h,j,k,l
  • i, o, a
  • c, d, p, y, dd, yy
  • ZZ, :w!, :q!, :e!

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage MBR partition tables
  • Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as:
  • ext2/ext3/ext4
  • XFS
  • VFAT
  • Awareness of ReiserFS and Btrfs
  • Basic knowledge of gdisk and parted with GPT

Terms and Utilities:

  • fdisk
  • gdisk
  • parted
  • mkfs
  • mkswap

 

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Verify the integrity of filesystems
  • Monitor free space and inodes
  • Repair simple filesystem problems

Terms and Utilities:

  • du
  • df
  • fsck
  • e2fsck
  • mke2fs
  • debugfs
  • dumpe2fs
  • tune2fs
  • XFS tools (such as xfs_metadump and xfs_info)

 

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manually mount and unmount filesystems
  • Configure filesystem mounting on bootup
  • Configure user mountable removable filesystems

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/fstab
  • /media/
  • mount
  • umount

 

104.4 Manage disk quotas

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to manage disk quotas for users.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set up a disk quota for a filesystem
  • Edit, check and generate user quota reports

Terms and Utilities:

  • quota
  • edquota
  • repquota
  • quotaon

 

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories
  • Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security
  • Know how to change the file creation mask
  • Use the group field to grant file access to group members

Terms and Utilities:

  • chmod
  • umask
  • chown
  • chgrp

 

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create links
  • Identify hard and/or soft links
  • Copying versus linking files
  • Use links to support system administration tasks

Terms and Utilities:

  • ln
  • ls

 

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS
  • Find files and commands on a Linux system
  • Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS

Terms and Utilities:

  • find
  • locate
  • updatedb
  • whereis
  • which
  • type
  • /etc/updatedb.conf

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